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Papers and Notes

Barriers and Negative Nudges: Exploring Challenges in Food Journaling — Note
Honorable Mention
Although food journaling is understood to be both important and difficult, little work has empirically documented the specific challenges people experience with food journals. We identify key challenges in a qualitative study combining a survey of 141 current and lapsed food journalers with analysis of 5,526 posts in community forums for three mobile food journals. Analyzing themes in this data, we find and discuss barriers to reliable food entry, negative nudges caused by current techniques, and challenges with social features. Our results motivate research exploring a wider range of approaches to food journal design and technology.

Felicia Cordeiro
University of Washington
Daniel A Epstein
University of Washington
Edison Thomaz
Georgia Institute of Technology
Elizabeth Bales
University of Washington
Arvind K Jagannathan
Georgia Institute of Technology
Gregory D Abowd
Georgia Institute of Technology
James Fogarty
University of Washington, Seattle, United States

uCap: An Internet Data Management Tool for the Home — Paper
Internet Service Providers (ISPs) have introduced “data caps”, or quotas on the amount of data that a customer can download during a billing cycle. Under this model, Internet users who reach a data cap can be subject to degraded performance, extra fees, or even temporary interruption of Internet service. For this reason, users need better visibility into and control over their Internet usage to help them understand what uses up data and control how these quotas are reached. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a tool, called uCap, to help home users manage Internet data. We conducted a field trial of uCap in 21 home networks in three countries and performed an in-depth qualitative study of ten of these homes. We present the results of the evaluation and implications for the design of future Internet data management tools.

Marshini Chetty
College of Information Studies, University of Maryland
Hyojoon Kim
College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Srikanth Sundaresan
International Computer Science Institute, Berkeley
Sam Burnett
College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Nick Feamster
Computer Science Department, Princeton University
W. K Edwards
School of Interactive Computing and GVU Center, Georgia Institute of Technology

Open Book: A Socially-inspired Cloaking Technique that Uses Lexical Abstraction to Transform Messages — Paper
Honorable Mention
Both governments and corporations routinely surveil computer-mediated communication (CMC). Technologists often suggest widespread encryption as a defense mechanism, but CMC encryption schemes have historically faced significant usability and adoption problems. Here, we introduce a novel technique called Open Book designed to address these two problems. Inspired by how people deal with eavesdroppers offline, Open Book uses data mining and natural language processing to transform CMC messages into ones that are vaguer than the original. Specifically, we present: 1) a greedy Open Book algorithm that cloaks messages by transforming them to resemble the average Internet message; 2) an open-source, browser-based instantiation of it called Read Me, designed for Gmail; and, 3) a set of experiments showing that intended recipients can decode Open Book messages, but that unintended human- and machine-recipients cannot. Finally, we reflect on some open questions raised by this approach, such as recognizability and future side-channel attacks.

Eric Gilbert
School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology

Piggyback Prototyping: Using Existing, Large-Scale Social Computing Systems To Prototype New Ones — Paper
Honorable Mention
We propose a technique we call piggyback prototyping, a prototyping mechanism for designing new social computing systems on top of existing ones. Traditional HCI prototyping techniques do not translate well to large social computing systems. To address this gap, we describe a 6-stage process for prototyping new social computing systems using existing online systems, such as Twitter or Facebook. This allows researchers to focus on what people do on their system rather than how to attract people to it. We illustrate this technique with an instantiation on Twitter to pair people who are different from each other in airports. Even though there were many missed meetings, 53% of survey respondents would be interested in being matched again, and eight people even met in person. Through piggyback prototyping, we gained insight into the future design of this system. We conclude the paper with considerations for privacy, consent, volume of users, and evaluation metrics.

Catherine Grevet
School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Eric Gilbert
School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology

In-group Questions and Out-group Answers: Crowdsourcing Daily Living Advice for Individuals with Autism — Paper
Difficulty in navigating daily life can lead to frustration and decrease independence for people with autism. While they turn to online autism communities for information and advice for coping with everyday challenges, these communities may present only a limited perspective because of their in-group nature. Obtaining support from out-group sources beyond the in-group community may prove valuable in dealing with challenging situations such as public anxiety and workplace conflicts. In this paper, we explore the value of supplementary out-group support from crowdsourced responders added to in-group support from a community of members. We find that out-group sources provide relatively rapid, concise responses with direct and structured information, socially appropriate coping strategies without compromising emotional value. Using an autism community as a motivating example, we conclude by providing design implications for combining in-group and out-group resources that may enhance the question-and-answer experience.

Hwajung Hong
School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Eric Gilbert
School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Gregory D Abowd
School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology
Rosa I Arriaga
School of Interactive Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology

Comparing Person- and Process-centric Strategies for Obtaining Quality Data on Amazon Mechanical Turk — Paper
Honorable Mention
In the past half-decade, Amazon Mechanical Turk has radically changed the way many scholars do research. The availability of a massive, distributed, anonymous crowd of individuals willing to perform general human-intelligence micro-tasks for micro-payments is a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners. This paper addresses the challenges of obtaining quality annotations for subjective judgment oriented tasks of varying difficulty. We design and conduct a large, controlled experiment (N=68,000) to measure the efficacy of selected strategies for obtaining high quality data annotations from non-experts. Our results point to the advantages of person-oriented strategies over process-oriented strategies. Specifically, we find that screening workers for requisite cognitive aptitudes and providing training in qualitative coding techniques is quite effective, significantly outperforming control and baseline conditions. Interestingly, such strategies can improve coder annotation accuracy above and beyond common benchmark strategies such as Bayesian Truth Serum (BTS).

Tanushree Mitra
Georgia Institute of Technology
C.J. Hutto
Georgia Institute of Technology
Eric Gilbert
Georgia Institute of Technology

Couples’ Communication Channels: What, When & Why? — Note
An overwhelming variety of communication channels are available to consumers. Here, we present an overview of the aspects that need to be accounted for when intimate partners select a communication channel. We present interviews with 10 cohabiting couples (20 participants) and an 8-day diary study of communication and coordination. Using reported instances of within-couple communication, triggered by relationship-oriented or practical household needs, we identify why particular channels are chosen or sequenced. Extending media richness critiques, we identify additional factors that influence communication choice such as intimate knowledge of the others’ habits, possibilities to add emotional meaning, and couples’ shared needs as an identifiable unit. We also extend the notion of network effects on channel choice, and discuss the ecology of channel, networks, devices and device settings involved between partners. Finally, channel choice is not an all-or-nothing game; multiple channels can, and must, co-exist.

Henriette Cramer
Yahoo Labs
Maia L Jacobs
Georgia Institute of Technology

Understanding the Role of Community in Online Dating — Paper
Online dating sites have become a common means of finding a romantic partner. And yet, these sites differ greatly from many other socially oriented websites: perhaps most notably, the pairwise style of interaction afforded by these sites prevents a robust online community from forming. Users, however, have taken matters into their own hands by creating thriving external forums for discussion of specific dating sites. We report on a multiple methods study of two online dating services, via observation and interviews with users of the forums associated with these sites. Our findings suggest that these forums play an essential role in creating an “outsourced community” for the dating sites, and also reveal practices around how some users “game the system” in online dating, the prevalence of harassment in online dating, and users’ frustrations with current dating sites. We conclude with a number of recommendations for system design.

Christina Masden
School of Interactive Computing and GVU Center, Georgia Institute of Technology
W. K Edwards
School of Interactive Computing and GVU Center, Georgia Institute of Technology

Real-time Guidance Camera Interface to Enhance Photo Aesthetic Quality — Note
This paper explores whether it is effective to use real-time on-screen guidance to help users take better photos with mobile devices. Using a three-camera array, we developed a photo-taking interface that provides real-time feedback on how to position the subject-of-interest according to a photography composition rule: rule-of-thirds. We conduct a user study to compare the aesthetic quality of photos taken with our real-time guidance interface against a static gridline interface common to existing digital cameras. Expert photographers and Mechanical Turk workers rate the aesthetic quality of these pairs of photos. Results indicate the photos taken with our real-time guidance interface have significantly higher aesthetics scores. This study shows the potential in using camera array, computational photography, and real-time guidance interface to help non-expert users take better photos.

Yan Xu
Intel Labs
Joshua Ratcliff
Intel Labs
James Scovell
SMG, Intel Corporation
Gheric Speiginer
Georgia Institute of Technology
Ronald Azuma
Intel Labs

Expanding and Refining Design and Criticality in HCI — Paper
Honorable Mention
The term ‘critical design’ is on the upswing in HCI. We analyze how discourses around ‘critical design’ are diverging in Design and HCI. We argue that this divergence undermines HCI’s ability to learn from and appropriate the design approaches signaled by this term. Instead, we articulate two ways to broaden and deepen connections between Design and HCI: (1) develop a broader collective understanding of what these design approaches can be, without forcing them to be about ‘criticality’ or ‘critical design,’ narrowly construed; and (2) shape a variation of design criticism to better meet Design practices, terms, and ways of knowing.

James Pierce
Carnegie Mellon University
Phoebe J Sengers
Cornell University
Tad Hirsch
University of Washington
Tom Jenkins
Digital Media Program, Georgia Institute of Technology
William W Gaver
Goldsmiths College
Carl DiSalvo
Digital Media Program, Georgia Institute of Technology

Examining Game World Topology Personalization — Note
We present an exploratory analysis of the effects of game world topologies on self-reported player experience in Computer Role Playing Games (CRPGs). We find that (a) players are more engaged in game worlds that better match their self-reported preferences; and (b) player preferences for game topology can be predicted based on their in-game behavior. We further describe how in-game behavioral features that correlate to preferences can be used to control procedural content generation algorithms.

Sauvik Das
Carnegie Mellon University
Alexander E Zook
Georgia Institute of Technology
Mark O Riedl
Georgia Institute of Technology

Mapping out Work in a Mixed Reality Project Room — Paper
We present results from a study examining how the physical layout of a project room and task affect the cognitive maps acquired of a connected virtual environment during mixed-presence collaboration. Results indicate that a combination of physical layout and task impacts cognitive maps of the virtual space. Participants did not form a strong model of how different physical work regions were situated relative to each other in the virtual world when the tasks performed in each region differed. Egocentric perspectives of multiple displays enforced by different furniture arrangements encouraged cognitive maps of the virtual world that reflected these perspectives, when the displays were used for the same task. These influences competed or coincided with document-based, audiovisual and interface cues, influencing collaboration. We consider the implications of our findings on WYSIWIS mappings between real and virtual for mixed-presence collaboration.

Derek Reilly
Faculty of Computer Science, Dalhousie University
Andy Echenique
ICS, University of California, Irvine
Andy Wu
General Electric
Anthony Tang
Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary
W. Keith Edwards
School of Interactive Computing and GVU Center, Georgia Institute of Technology

This Digital Life: A Neighborhood-Based Study of Adolescents’ Lives Online — Paper
In this paper, we present the results of a multi-year study of the social computing practices of 179 adolescents (Mage=12.4 years, SD=1.3; range: 10-14) living in a majority-minority lower-income urban neighborhood in the Southeast U.S. We investigate shifting social media practices using annual surveys and focus groups. We describe participants’ social media use and motivations and show how that use has shifted over time. We show how participants identify social pressures and influences as well as specific behaviors including computer-mediated risky behaviors and self-harm. We discuss the implications of our findings for the CHI research community, including methodological challenges and the need for further study of computer-mediated harmful behaviors in youth populations. By demonstrating how large-scale trends are enacted on the ground, we describe participants’ uses, motivations and behaviors as they deal with the increasing influence of technology in their social lives.

Jessica A Pater
Georgia Institute of Technology
Andrew D Miller
University of Washington
Elizabeth D Mynatt
Georgia Institute of Technology

 

Courses

The Glass Class: Designing Wearable Interfaces — course
This course will teach how to design and develop effective interfaces for head mounted or wrist worn wearable computers through the application of user-centered design principles. It will enable existing HCI practitioners to enter the fast growing area of wearable computing. Attendees will gain the knowledge and tools needed to develop prototype applications, and an understanding of the important areas of current research and development.

Mark Billinghurst
Human Interface Technology Laboratory New Zealand, University of Canterbury
Thad Starner
Georgia Institute of Technology

 

TOCHI

Augmented Reality Expert Panel Discussion — TOCHI

Mark Billinghurst
HIT Lab NZ, University of Canterbury
Woontack Woo
GSCT/UVR Lab, KAIST
Thad Starner
Georgia Institute of Technology
Shahram Izadi
Microsoft Research